نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استادیار دانشگاه ازاد تنکابن
عنوان مقاله [English]
The general purpose of this investigation is scientific study, validity, reliability and norming of spiritual intelligence test in Tonekabon city.
To gain this purpose a sample group including 451 people (190 boys & 261 girls) were selected randomly. Afterward a questionnaire including 83 items applied to assess their spiritual intelligence. This was measured on a six-point likert scale with categories from never to almost always. To obtain the correlation of each item with total score of the group, Cronbach’s alpha was used. For the group concluding 82 items, the coefficient of Cronbach alpha was 0.875. Whenever a question of the assessment is omitted, validity coefficient (homogenous) of the test which is equal to 0.875 in normal condition, decreases but if the questions number 5,6,9,11,22,23,31,33,34,44,53,55,60,68,74,75,76,79 are omitted, the validity coefficient increases. The maximum increase of validity is 0.877 which is related to the questions 9,11,22,23,34,75,76. Question 61 was omitted from the questionnaire due to weak correlation. To survey about the reliability of the concept and to know that this measurement is satiated with what factors, we used factor analysis.
As the amount of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) was 0.77 and as Croit Bartlet’s particular is meaningful, there is a proper condition to perform factor analysis. By analyzing principal components and Varimax Rotation and with regard to factor Matrix, 14 factors were extracted. Average scores of boys and girls in factors 2,3,4,5 have meaningful differences at level of 0.01 and 0.05. In every four factors average scores of girls are more than boys; however there were not significant differences between the other 10 factors. Generally there are significant differences between average scores of girls and boys.
Spirituality is one of inner requirements by human which exists in hearts, minds and customs especially religious customs. As Tillich has said spirituality is the final concern; as all humans have a final concern so all are spiritual (Akins et al, 1988). In the recent decades, the theories of multiple-intelligence have increased our general perception about intelligence beside traditional perception (linguistic and logical abilities related to Intelligent Quotient (IQ) including spiritual, existential, social intelligence and talent which change to creative and emotional practices) (Bar, 2000; Gardner, 1983, 2000; Emmons, 1999; Halama & Stridence, 2004; Goleman, 2001; Mayer & Salovey, 1993; Sternberg, 1997).